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1995~present English-Chinese translator

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1995~2002 Harbin university. Engage in the fields of accountancy, economics, business administration, marketing, etc.


  • Master degree (2003), business administration, Harbin Institute of Technology (among the Top 10 universities in China ).

  • Bachelor degree (1995), accountancy, Harbin University.


  • 1000+ projects completed since 1995

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a. AirAsia (200,000+ words) http://www.airasia.com/cn/zh/

b. KLM (100,000+ words) http://www.klm.com/travel/cn_cn/index.htm

c.Symantec(5000+ words) http://www.symantec.com/zh/cn/

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Nov 27, 2008

English Chinese translation sample--Business process outsourcing(业务流程外包)in India 2

By Freelance Chinese Translator Li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services - website localization– based in Harbin,China.

General Electric(通用电器)
In the 1990s Jack Welch was influenced by K.P. Singh, (A Delhi based realtor[美国房地产行业工会成员,房地产经纪人]) to look at Gurgaon(古尔冈) in the NCR region as a base for back office operations. Pramod Bhasin, the India head of G.E. hired Raman Roy and several of his management from American Express to start this enterprise called GECIS (GE Capital International Services). Raman for the first time tried out voice operations(语音服务) out of India(从印度), the India operations also was the Beta site(第二版) for GE Six sigma enterprise. The results made GE ramp up(蔓延、扩大) their Indian presence and look at other locations. In 2004 GECIS was spun off as(演化成为) a separate legal entity(独立法人) by GE, called Genpact. GE has retained(保持) a 40% stake and sold a 60% stake for $500 million to two equity companies(股权投资公司), Oak Hill Capital Partners and General Atlantic Partners.

Third party BPO's
Until G.E most of the work was being done by "captives[就是外包企业]"- a term used for in house work being done for the parent organization. In 2000 Raman Roy and some team members from GECIS quit, and with VC funding(风险资本) from Chrysalis Capital started Spectramind. At the same time an organization called EXL started in Noida(诺伊达) and Efunds started in Mumbai(孟买) and Gurgaon(古尔冈), and Daksh in Gurgaon. However, recently most of the Indian BPO's even smaller and mid-sized ones are actually setting-up their onshore presence(在国内的影响). Most of the serious players are actually improving the outsourced business processes by leveraging on years of experience and now some of them are directly competing with their own older clientbase(客户) by marking this transition to KPO 's(知识流程外包).

Nov 25, 2008

English Chinese translation sample--Business process outsourcing(业务流程外包) in India 1

By Freelance Chinese Translator Li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services - website localization– based in Harbin,China.


In the early 1980s several European airlines started using Delhi as a base for back office(后台办公室) operations, British Airways(英国航空公司) being one among them. The BA captive(被控制机构) was finally spun off as(演化成为) a separate organization called WNS Global Services in 2002.

In the second half of the 1980s, American Express(美国运通公司,旅游服务、金融投资等业务) consolidated(整合) its JAPAC (Japan and Asia Pacific) back office operations into New Delhi. This center was headed by Raman Roy, and has been a source of several leading names(领先人物、领先品牌) in the Indian BPO Industry(业务流程外包行业).

Nov 19, 2008

English Chinese translation sample--Criticisms of outsourcing 7

By Freelance Chinese Translator Li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services - website localization– based in Harbin,China.

Before outsourcing an organization is responsible for the actions of all their staff and liable for their actions. When these same people are transferred to an outsourcer they may not change desk but their legal status(法律地位) has changed. They no-longer are directly employed or responsible to the organization. This causes legal, security and compliance issues that need to be addressed through the contract between the client and the suppliers. This is one of the most complex areas of outsourcing and requires a specialist third party adviser.

Fraud is a specific security issue that is criminal activity whether it is by employees or the supplier staff. However, it can be disputed that the fraud is more likely when outsourcers are involved, for example about the credit card theft when there is scope(机会,余地) for fraud by credit card cloning(克隆). In April 2005, a high-profile case(鲜明的案例,典型案例) involving the theft of $350,000 from four Citibank customers occurred when call center workers acquired the passwords to customer accounts and transferred the money to their own accounts opened under fictitious names(假名). Citibank did not find out about the problem until the American customers noticed discrepancies(差异) with their accounts and notified the bank.

Nov 17, 2008

English Chinese translation sample-Criticisms of outsourcing 6

(By freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services - website localization– based in Harbin,China)

The U.S.
'Outsourcing' became a popular political issue in the United States during the 2004 U.S. presidential election. The political debate centered on outsourcing's consequences for the domestic U.S. workforce. Democratic U.S. presidential candidate (总统竞选人) John Kerry criticized U.S. firms that outsource jobs abroad or that incorporate overseas in tax havens(避税天堂) to avoid paying their fair share of U.S. taxes during his 2004 campaign, calling such firms "Benedict Arnold corporations". Criticism of outsourcing, from the perspective of U.S. citizens, by-and-large(总体上), revolves around the costs associated with transferring control of the labor process to an external entity in another country. A Zogby International poll conducted in August 2004 found that 71% of American voters believed that “outsourcing jobs overseas” hurt the economy while another 62% believed that the U.S. government should impose some legislative action against companies that transfer domestic jobs overseas, possibly in the form of increased taxes on companies that outsource. One given rationale(基本原理) is the extremely high corporate income tax rate in the U.S. relative to other OECD nations(经合组织国家), and the peculiar practice of taxing revenues earned outside of U.S. jurisdiction(管辖区), a very uncommon practice. It is argued that lowering the corporate income tax and ending the double-taxation of foreign-derived revenue (taxed once in the nation where the revenue was raised, and once from the U.S.) will alleviate corporate outsourcing and make the U.S. more attractive to foreign companies. Sarbanes-Oxley(萨班斯法案) has also been cited as a factor for corporate flight from U.S. jurisdiction.

Nov 13, 2008

Criticisms of outsourcing 5

(By freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services - website localization– based in Harbin,China)

Standpoint of labor
From the standpoint of labor within countries on the negative end(发包方) of outsourcing this may represent a new threat, contributing to rampant worker insecurity, and reflective(沉思) of the general process of globalization . While the "outsourcing" process may provide benefits to less developed countries or global society as a whole, in some form and to some degree - include rising wages or increasing standards of living - these benefits are not secure. Further, the term outsourcing is also used to describe a process by which an internal department, equipment as well as personnel, is sold to a service provider, who may retain the workforce on worse conditions or discharge them in the short term. The affected workers thus often feel they are being "sold down the river."

Nov 10, 2008

English Chinese translation sample-Criticisms of outsourcing 4

(By freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services - website localization– based in Harbin,China)

Qualifications of outsourcers(外包企业的资格)
The outsourcer may replace staff with less qualified people or with people with different non-equivalent qualifications.

In the engineering discipline(工程学科) there has been a debate about the number of engineers being produced by the major economies of the United States, India and China. The argument centers around(围绕) the definition of an engineering graduate and also disputed numbers. The closest comparable numbers of annual gradates of four-year degrees(读四年获得的学位) are United States (137,437) India (112,000) and China (351,537).

Offshore outsourcing(离岸外包) for the purpose of saving cost can often have a negative influence on the real productivity of a company. Rather than investing in technology to improve productivity, companies gain non-real(非现实的) productivity by hiring fewer people locally and outsourcing work to less productive facilities(效率不高的机构) offshore that appear to be more productive simply because the workers are paid less. Sometimes, this can lead to strange contradictions where workers in a third world country using hand tools(手工工具) can appear to be more productive than a U.S. worker using advanced computer controlled machine tools(电脑控制的机械工具), simply because their salary appears to be less in terms of U.S. dollars.

In contrast, increases in real productivity are the result of more productive tools(生产工具) or methods of operating(经营手段) that make it possible for a worker to do more work. Non-real productivity gains are the result of shifting work to lower paid workers, often without regards to real productivity. The net result of choosing non-real over real productivity gain is that the company falls behind and obsoletes itself(荒废自己) overtime rather than making investments in real productivity.

Nov 7, 2008

English Chinese translation sample-Criticisms of outsourcing 3

(By freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services - website localization– based in Harbin,China)

Staff turnover
The staff turnover(人员转移,人员流动)of employee who originally transferred to the outsourcer is a concern for many companies. Turnover is higher under an outsourcer and key company skills(关键技能) may be lost with retention outside of the control of the company.

In outsourcing offshore there is an issue of staff turnover in the outsourcer companies call centers. It is quite normal for such companies to replace its entire workforce each year in a call center. This inhibits(抑制) the build-up of employee knowledge and keeps quality at a low level.

Company knowledge
Outsourcing could lead to communication problems(沟通问题) with transferred employees. For example, before transfer staff have access to broadcast company e-mail informing them of new products, procedures etc. Once in the outsourcing organization the same access may not be available. Also to reduce costs, some outsource employees may not have access to e-mail, but any information which is new is delivered in team meetings.

Nov 5, 2008

English Chinese translation sample-Criticisms of outsourcing 2

(By freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services - website localization– based in Harbin,China)

Social responsibility
Outsourcing sends jobs to the lower-income areas where work is being outsourced to, which provides jobs in these areas and has a net equalizing effect(平衡效应) on the overall distribution of wealth. Some argue that the outsourcing of jobs (particularly off-shore) exploits the lower paid workers. A contrary view is that more people are employed and benefit from paid work.

On the issue of high-skilled labor, such as computer programming, some argue that it is unfair to both the local and off-shore programmers to outsource the work simply because the foreign pay rate(工资率) is lower. On the other hand, one can argue that paying the higher-rate for local programmers is wasteful, or charity, or simply overpayment. If the end goal of buyers is to pay less for what they buy, and for sellers it is to get a higher price for what they sell, there is nothing automatically unethical(不道德的) about choosing the cheaper of two products, services, or employees.

Quality of service
Quality of service is measured through a service level agreement (SLA) in the outsourcing contract. In poorly defined contracts there is no measure of quality or SLA defined. Even when an SLA exists it may not be to the same level as previously enjoyed. This may be due to the process of implementing proper objective measurement(客观度量) and reporting which is being done for the first time. It may also be lower quality through design to match the lower price.

There are a number of stakeholders(利益相关人) who are affected and there is no single view of quality. The CEO may view the lower quality acceptable to meet the business needs at the right price. The retained management team may view quality as slipping(下滑) compared to what they previously achieved. The end consumer of the service may also receive a change in service that is within agreed SLAs but is still perceived as inadequate. The supplier may view quality in purely meeting the defined SLAs regardless of perception or ability to do better.

Quality in terms of end-user-experience is best measured through customer satisfaction questionnaires which are professionally designed to capture an unbiased view of quality. Surveys can be one of research. This allows quality to be tracked over time and also for corrective action(纠正措施) to be identified and taken.

Nov 4, 2008

Criticisms of outsourcing1

(By freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services - website localization– based in Harbin,China)

Public opinion
There is a strong public opinion regarding outsourcing (especially when combined with offshoring) that outsourcing damages a local labor market(当地的劳务市场). Outsourcing is the transfer of the delivery of services which affects both jobs and individuals. It is difficult to dispute that outsourcing has a detrimental effect on individuals who face job disruption(职业受损) and employment insecurity(就业不稳定); however, its supporters believe that outsourcing should bring down prices, providing greater economic benefit to all. There are legal protections in the European Union regulations called the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment,就业保障). Labor laws in the United States are not as protective as those in the European Union. A study has attempted to show that public controversies about outsourcing in the U.S. have much more to do with class and ethnic tensions(阶级和种族的紧张关系) within the U.S. itself, than with actual impacts of outsourcing.

Failure to realize business value
The main business criticism of outsourcing is that it fails to realize the business value(商业价值) that the outsourcer promised the client.

Language skills
In the area of call centers end-user-experience(终端用户体验) is deemed to be of lower quality when a service is outsourced. This is exacerbated(加剧) when outsourcing is combined with off-shoring to regions where the first language and culture are different. The questionable quality is particularly evident when call centers that service the public are outsourced and offshored.

Nov 3, 2008

English Chinese translation samples--Reasons for outsourcing2

(By freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services - website localization– based in Harbin,China)

Staffing issues. Access to a larger talent pool(人才库) and a sustainable source of skills.

Capacity management(产能管理). An improved method of capacity management of services and technology where the risk in providing the excess capacity is borne by the supplier.

Catalyst for change. An organization can use an outsourcing agreement as a catalyst for major step change that can not be achieved alone. The outsourcer becomes a Change agent in the process.

Reduce time to market(节省市场进入时间). The acceleration of the development or production of a product through the additional capability brought by the supplier.

Commodification(商品化,主要指分工和中间市场). The trend of standardizing business processes, IT Services and application services enabling businesses to intelligently buy at the right price. Allows a wide range of businesses access to services previously only available to large corporations.

Risk management. An approach to risk management for some types of risks is to partner with an outsourcer who is better able to provide the mitigation(缓冲).