Native Chinese speaker Be a translator since 1995

Master Degree (my certificates) Certified accountant

Website localization DTP (Desktop publishing)

High quality-ready to publish Try it for free!


1995~present English-Chinese translator

2010~2014 Webmaster of usatouronline.com

1995~2002 Harbin university. Engage in the fields of accountancy, economics, business administration, marketing, etc.


  • Master degree (2003), business administration, Harbin Institute of Technology (among the Top 10 universities in China ).

  • Bachelor degree (1995), accountancy, Harbin University.


  • 1000+ projects completed since 1995

  • Recent projects:
a. AirAsia (200,000+ words) http://www.airasia.com/cn/zh/

b. KLM (100,000+ words) http://www.klm.com/travel/cn_cn/index.htm

c.Symantec(5000+ words) http://www.symantec.com/zh/cn/

Click here to see more samples


Translation0.06 USD~0.08 USD per source word (English or Chinese)

Editing 0.03 USD~0.04 USD per source word (English or Chinese)

DTP 10~12 USD per A4 page


Email: translator_li@hotmail.com MSN: translator_li@hotmail.com

TOM-Skype: translatorli2008 Cell phone :0086-13674676677

HOW TO GET STARTED (click here for more details)

Apr 29, 2007

How to improve your listing in the freelancer directory

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)

How to improve your listing in the freelancer directory
The ProZ.com freelancer directory is the most comprehensive directory of freelance language service providers on the Internet. It is searched thousands of times daily by outsourcers and clients looking for freelance translators and interpreters with whom to do business. Maintaining an informative, targeted listing in this directory is critical for freelancers who want to win new clients online.

The directory provides the most benefit to service providers who specialize. Your goal should be to stand out in a specialized area of the directory (English to Spanish patent translators, for example). Please read this article for more information about the importance of specialization and establishing yourself as an expert in your field.

Indicate that you are a freelancer

Only freelance language service providers appear in this directory. If you are a freelancer, make sure that is reflected in your profile. Set your "account type" to either "freelancer" or "both agency and freelancer".

Complete your profile

Select 5 or fewer working language pairs in your profile. It is possible to select more language pairs, but in the future excessive languages may not be shown in the directory. Working languages are those marked "show in profile". Only working languages are shown in the directory.

Define your detailed fields of expertise. Select up to 10 specific fields in which you specialize, and up to 30 more in which you work. Only fields you mark as "specialty" or "working" will be shown in the directory. Also select 4 or fewer general categories.

Fill out your personal information. Enter your full name and your country of residence. (While on this page, also ensure that your "account type" is set to "freelancer" as discussed above.)

Fill out your professional information. Enter a tagline and how many years of professional experience you have. Edit your background and specialization information so that your profile clearly reflects your specialty and experience. Many service providers also choose to show their real first and last names (rather than just usernames).

Declare your native language, or mother tongue.

Report language-related credentials that you have earned.

Specify what translation software you have, such as CAT tools or desk-top publishing programs.

Provide samples of your translation work in your portfolio.

Elect to show your ProZ.com online status to allow outsourcers to contact you from the directory using ProZ.com messaging (platinum members only).

Earn KudoZ points

Translators earn "KudoZ points" at ProZ.com by assisting other translators with tough terms. KudoZ points are classified by field of expertise, and are therefore helpful in identifying translators suitable for further screening on jobs that require expertise in a given domain.

"Pro" KudoZ questions are distinguished from "easy" questions that could be answered by any bilingual speaker.

By default, directory search results are sorted by the number of "pro" KudoZ points members have in the specified field and language pair. Therefore, to improve your placement in the directory, aquire "pro" KudoZ points in your fields of specialization.

To earn KudoZ points, subscribe to notifications of "pro" KudoZ questions in your languages and fields of expertise, and then propose answers for those questions. You will find that general KudoZ traffic can be very high, but restricting KudoZ notifications to a few specialized fields is much more manageable.

If you have answered a number of KudoZ questions in the past, they may not yet have been categorized into specific fields. Provide detailed categories for your answered KudoZ questions to have your KudoZ points more accurately reflect your expertise.

Get Verified

Acquire a verified identity (VID) icon in the directory by getting your identity verified.

Have your reported credentials verified by site staff.

Report your availability

If you are immediately available for new projects, make sure your availability indicator shows that in the directory by reporting your availability regularly.

Go platinum

The most effective way to increase your ranking in the directory is to upgrade to platinum membership. Platinum members are always shown in directory search results before non-platinum members.

From:Jason Grimes

Meet and evaluate clients

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)
If you are interested in meeting clients via ProZ.com, it is important to be a full member. The site is designed to direct client traffic to members whenever possible. If you are not a member, you should not expect to meet clients at ProZ.com.

Assuming you are a member, the most important things you can do to meet clients at ProZ.com are described above: specialize, carefully complete your profile, and distinguish yourself by participating in the workplace in your area of expertise.

In addition, the following tools are available.

Review job listings

In your jobs dashboard, subscribe to receive email notification of jobs in your field. Review the job listings and submit quotes on jobs that interest you.

Evaluate potential clients using the Blue Board

Before you begin to work with a new client, check the ProZ.com Blue Board to learn about other translators' experiences.

Fill out your project history

Use ProZ.com's project history service to track your past projects and showcase feedback from your clients.

Submit applications to outsourcers via the Blue Board

Blue Board outsourcers can indicate that they wish to receive applications from translators who match specific criteria. Visit the Blue Board applications page to review those outsourcers whose criteria you meet, and to submit applications to them.

Run targeted directory text ads

Take out directory text ads in your fields, being sure to write text that highlights your expertise.

Distinguish yourself through participation

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)

In order to stand out at ProZ.com, you must participate in ways that make it possible to recognize your unique skills.

Contribute to KudoZ in your areas of expertise

In your KudoZ dashboard, subscribe to receive notification of KudoZ questions in your specific niche. Note that the volume of KudoZ questions can be quite large if you do not target carefully. At first, try subscribing only to "PRO" questions in your "specialty" fields in your top working language pairs.

Try to participate in answering a few KudoZ questions per week in your areas of expertise. Suggest answers, and comment on the answers of others. Over time, you will not only earn points and accumulate a body of sample work that helps to showcase your skills; you will also get to know the other experts in the field.

Publish online articles in your field

Share your expertise by publishing online articles in the areas in which you have special knowledge. People will contact you to discuss, or when they need help and/or your services.

Publish a personal glossary in your field

Publish a glossary of your own in your field. Make it available to the general public.

Participate in other ways that interest you

There are a number of other ways to participate in the ProZ.com community. Review the available ProZ.com services, and experiment with those that interest you.

Try participating in discussion forums that appeal to you, or attending (or proposing) a ProZ.com powwow in your area. You may wish to form a translation team, or participate in translator group buying. Look around and experiment, and participate in ways that work for you.
From: Jason Grimes

ProZ.com services meet translator needs by facilitating collaboration

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)
A collaborative translation workplace naturally lends itself to the provision of certain services. For example, see the following list of some ProZ.com services. (For a more complete list of ProZ.com services, please refer to the site map.)

Terminology help

The KudoZ terms help network provides a structured way for translators to give and receive help with difficult and specialized terms.

Knowledge sharing and archival

ProZ.com provides extensive glossary resources; translation-related articles and related contributions; searchable language-related discussion forums; the ProZ.com Blue Board, a database of outsourcers and associated feedback; databases of organizations serving the translation industry; quick polls of (and by) the ProZ.com community; aggregate data about translation rates; etc.

Directories and match-making resources

ProZ.com furnishes directories of translators, interpreters, and outsourcers; job listings and related services; a world map showing member locations; etc.

Communication tools

To facilitate direct person-to-person communication, ProZ.com provides public and private discussion forums; profile mail (a way to receive mail without disclosing your email address); intra-site ProZ.com messaging; access to third-party instant messengers, Skype, etc.


Powwows are informal get-togethers of local translators; ProZ.com also organizes national and international conferences.

Combined purchasing power

Translator Group Buying (TGB) allows translators to buy together in bulk and receive steep discounts; the ProZ.com store sells language-related products.

From:Jason Grimes

What is ProZ.com?

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)
The term "ProZ.com" is used to refer to the translation workplace at www.proz.com, the community that uses it, and the (for-profit) company behind it. The ProZ.com community is the largest translator community in the world.

The workplace concept: The Internet + cooperation + expertise

ProZ.com describes itself as a "workplace". The term "marketplace" is sometimes used, but that is a misnomer; it describes only a small part of what happens at ProZ.com.

The ProZ.com workplace uses Internet technologies to facilitate cooperation among translators, and to distinguish and highlight their expertise.

We are all better off if we work together

Translators once worked alone and in solitude. At ProZ.com, translators collaborate for mutual benefit. We help each other, and the combined knowledge and expertise of the entire community becomes accessible to all. As that knowledge gets archived, it also becomes available to others in the future.

Through collaboration, expertise becomes apparent--to colleagues and potential clients

By collaborating within a structured system, individual expertise can be revealed. Over time and with the proper tools it becomes possible to see who is good, and what they are good at. This distinction allows a meritocracy to form. Translators can be distinguished on the basis of their unique skills.

Because the workplace helps to identify expertise in this way, it can aid outsourcers and clients seeking qualified language professionals.

As a consequence, ProZ.com has become the #1 place for translators to meet new clients.

From:Jason Grimes

Apr 28, 2007

Quality management for freelance translation projects

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)
Quality management, including quality control and quality assurance, is a crucial aspect of translation, yet most translators, even those who have developed their own way of turning round the problem, do not have a precise understanding of the definitions of these concepts, nor an elaborated way of implementing them.

To manage quality on our project, we must first understand the specific quality expectations of our client and then put a plan in place to meet those expectations. The most important elements of this plan are the quality control and quality assurance activities that must be performed.

Quality Control refers to quality related activities associated with translation projects. It is used to make sure that the translation will be of good quality and that it will be complete and correct.

Quality Assurance refers to the process of granting approval to a project. It can be performed by the translator, the client or a third-party reviewer.

Managing quality in translation projects

The method for managing quality includes:

A) Agreeing on Completeness and Correctness Criteria

The translator and the client should agree beforehand on what completeness and correctness mean for the project. The project may then be evaluated against these criteria before it is formally approved.

B) Putting in Place a Quality Control process

The main reason why some projects fail to meet client expectations for quality is that some translators do not think ahead about how they are going to manage quality on the project. This is the purpose of the quality control process or quality plan. A quality control process starts when the client contacts the translator and continues after delivery of the project, until when it is finally accepted.

It is the program of the processes and activities that will be put into place to provide quality translations are described.

Here is an example of a quality control process valid for a typical technical translation project; it can be adapted to comply with any translator’s personal methods and field of expertise:

1. Accepting a project
Taking into consideration of the requirements and specialties involved, the degree of difficulty of the project to complete and the turn-around time, it is advisable not to accept any project without making sure that it falls within one’s translating ability.

2. Pre-translation
This consists of reviewing the client’s material and requirements thoroughly before starting a project. Do some preliminary research, and if needed, build a new glossary/Translation memory.

3. Translation
Providing translation services requires not only language skills. A well conducted translation project would require a professional translator with both the necessary linguistic and specific subject matter expertise. A translator normally relies on glossaries, translation memories, dictionaries and Internet resources, in addition to his knowledge and experience.

Always use the translation memories and glossaries along with the concerned style guide provided by the client to assure consistency. If there are some instructions from the client, they should be studied before starting the job.

4. Referring to the client to make some points clear
Ask the client all questions that we could not solve or that only he can answer, like client’s specific short names and abbreviations, unclear context for occurrence of a word. Receive the answers and do whatever you can conclude or that is instructed.

5. Language review
In a language review, translations are compared against original documents to check for incorrect translations or omissions. In this process, according to rules of technical writing, parts requiring so are rewritten to make them easier to read and understand.

6. Proofreading
This is the review of the translation against style guides and terms lists, if any, to ensure that it is in the correct format, the guides or terms lists are followed, and correct expressions are used.

C) Performing Quality Assurance Checks

This consists of evaluating the final project against the completeness and correctness criteria defined in accordance with the client. As we said above, it can be performed either by the translator, the client or a third-party reviewer.

The cornerstone for quality in translation

Experience serves as a guarantee for quality. In the course of translation the translator must focus on controlling the progress and quality. To prevent the progress of quality from going out of control, all texts must be translated by the experienced translator himself. This also helps assure the consistency of the customer’s documents.

From:Chantal Kamgne

Prices, Service and Marketing about translation

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)
This article was originally posted in Proz on the French Forum –in French– and, following requests from several members, I decided to translate it and submit it as an article to make it more accessible. However, understand this was an informal chat, and it remains pretty informal throughout.

I would like, first of all, to congratulate Jean Marie, who, first in Proz.com's history (to my knowlegde at least) brings up the question "Is there a limit to prices"?

Usually, we mostly discuss "how terrible" the rates are, and I am quite happy to take on a more positive viewpoint. A few thoughts:

Of course, the price must be on par with the service provided. However, I must admit that if my customers were inclined to pay 2 euros a word, I would probably be ready to accept. And if they insisted, I would even be ready to accept more.

I have never seen translation prices carved in stone by the Almighty, and obviously, there are all kind of prices on the market, from 0.01 euro to 0.6 euro a word (or even more). So, apparently, the sky isn't a limit – and neither is the floor.

Il all comes down to what you are able to negociate. The price you can charge depends 100% on what you are able to negociate. There is no other parameter in that equation. If you are able to negociate 2 euros per word, you have 2 euros per word.

We can therefore reformulate the question as:"How to negociate more?"

On a more pratical level, as it's up to the translator to make a quote, the price is limited by what the translator has the courage/audacity/temerity/decency* to ask for in the first place.

(*Pick one – it's a matter of viewpoint)

The first limit to what a translator can ask for, is what he asks for. The guy who systematically replies "0.08 Euros" doesn't stand a chance on Earth to ever reach 0.10 Euros.

Can you imagine the customer say "That's not enough. I want to pay more"? Corrupt politicians aside, the odds are long indeed.

Of course, the guy is gonna say "Yeah, but if I ask 0.10 euros, the customer is gonna say it's too expensive, and he is going to find somebody else"...

And that's the first barrier in charging more. To charge more, he is gonna have to start asking more. He will have to start by changing his attitude.

(This is *only* the first barrier)

Now, the guy who typically asks for 0.08 Euros feels comfortable with that rate. He knows he has reasonable chances to get it, and he doesn't want to work cheaper either, so he doesn't really mind to "waste" the customers who pay less.

I would call this his havingness zone. The quantity of havingness he feels confortable with. If he asked for a lot more, he would say to himself "Dammit! This is off the rails." And if someone offered him much less, he would laugh at him.

This comfort zone, is his ability to have.

There is a principle by which before one can have, he must be able to waste. It can seem strange to start with, but if you think about it...

Take for instance the guy who has a Ferrari, but in fact, that Ferrari is well beyond his havingness. What if he made a scratch? The guy terrified by the thought of an accident.

This guy is clearly unable to have this car, even if his name is on the registration papers. He can't waste this car, and he is therefore unable to have it, really.

He doesn't really own this car, you know. This car owns him. He couldn't tell himself "This car is a pain, I am gonna trash it" or "Bah, if I break it, it doesn't matter, I'll just buy a new one".

Can you picture yourself stepping aboard a car that's worth 50 years of your salary? That's enough to freak you out. Make a scratch on the seat and you be in debts for the next 2 years!

Before you can have, you must be able to waste. Getting back to our 0.08 euros a word translator, he is quite able to waste offers at 0.04 euro (and even laugh at them), but not at 0.08 euros. At 0.08 euros,... "Yes Sir. For tomorrow? Certainly, Sir. ..."

To increase his prices, he will have to be comfortable enough to risk wasting "0.08 euros a word" offers.

In other word, he must be able to think "Oh Well, if I don't get it, I don't care".

One of the ways to get there could be to get such an abundance of work at 0.08 that he doesn't care if he miss out on one. (It's just one of the ways). The idea consists of getting in a position where one can waste.

Once he reaches that stage, he can start asking 0.10 euros to his new customers, for instance. Since he already has enough work at 0.08 euros, he can afford to take a chance and miss out on that new customer. He is now at a stage where he can start having 0.10 euros. And by asking 0.10 euros to his new customers, he will start making a small list of customers who will pay 0.10 euros.

If he is capable of providing a service on that level, this small list will grow to the point where he will be able to raise his prices with his old 0.08 euros customers.

He is now in a position where he is confortable with 0.10 euros, and the cycle can start over, as long as he can provide the service on par with what is expected at that rate and that he is able to get an abundance of potential customers.

To sum up my opinion on the subject, there are three factors able to determine the price, by order of importance:

1. The havingness (ability to have)
2. The ability to get potential customers (Marketing)
3. The capacity to deliver the service (Quality/turnaround/CRM,...)

I hope you will find these thoughts useful. They apply not only to the translator but also to the agencies dealing with direct customers, and thinking about it, to any independant commercial activity.

I wish you a lot of success.


How to import TRDOZ TM

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)

Basically you need to export the Trados TM into TMX format and than simply open the TMX in Wordfast.

There is an article on the subject on http://www.wordfast.net./

Apr 27, 2007

English to Chinese translation sample 5 -Select SAP R/3 platform

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)

English to Chinese


For the vast majority of users, the viable SAP R/3 platform choices through 2001 will be limited to Windows NT (on Intel) and Unix (Hewlett-Packard, Sun Microsystems, IBM and Seimens Nixdorf), while OS/390 Open Edition and OS/400 will be available for current users whose platform loyalty outweighs other considerations (0.8 probability).

Key Issue: How should users best select server platforms and vendors for RDBMS and application server roles during the next five years?
[graphic chart, omitted]

The chart above summarizes our major findings regarding three critical differentiators for SAP R/3 platform selection: Market share (a current snapshot -- expect improvements for Windows NT and Sun), Performance and scaling (determined by current high water marks) and High availability (failover and clustering functionality). By the time a platform decision must be made, most users have already contracted with an external service provider or system integrator for the R/3 implementation assistance required, so system vendors’ R/3 professional service expertise may be an irrelevant differentiator. The timeliness and quality of system vendors’ hardware and software maintenance can be a differentiator, but only if verified by "local" references. System vendors that propose a heterogeneous solution (e.g., Windows NT application servers running against a Unix RDBMS server) introduce another level of management and problem resolution complexity and management cost into the picture.

Action Item: We recommend that users always check vendors local references for hardware maintenance, due to extreme quality variations we have seen on a geographic basis.


对于绝大多数用户,可行的SAP R/3平台选择直到2001年将仅限于 Windows NTon Intel)和UnixHewlett-Packard, Sun Microsystems, IBM and Seimens Nixdorf) ,而 OS/390 Open Edition OS/400将提供给那些首先考虑平台忠诚度(概率0.8)的现有用户。


以上图表概括了我们关于选择 SAP R/3平台三个重要因素的主要发现。 市场份额(目前状况-- Windows NT Sun有望提高),业绩和规模(通过目前的最高水平来判断)和高实用性(自动切换和集群功能)。 当需要决定选择某个平台时,大多数的用户已经就R/3的技术服务事项,与外部服务提供商或系统集成服务商订立了合同,因此系统供应商的 R/3专业知识因素可以不考虑。 系统供应商软硬件维护的及时性和质量可以考虑,但是必须在当地找到依据。 如果系统供应商提出一个异构方案(比如,Windows NT 应用伺服器与Unix RDBMS伺服器冲突),那么还需要考虑管理水平、解决问题的复杂性和管理成本等因素。

活动项目: 由于系统质量的地区差异极大,所以我们建议用户经常在当地询证供应商的硬件维护情况。

Apr 24, 2007

About translation contracts

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)

If you're working with agencies, they may have a contract they want you to sign. I have signed few such contracts, but it so happens that my biggest and most regular clients have never asked me to sign a contract. I have also refused to sign certain contracts because I felt they were far too biased. Sometimes the agency simply asks you to cross out those sections you do not feel comfortable signing, sometimes they refuse to work with you if you don't sign. The bottom line for me is: make sure you read and understand the contract, and never sign anything you don't feel comfortable with!

Below are some examples of terms and conditions found in actual contracts presented to freelance translators which I personally would never agree to sign. I can understand the desire for a contract, although I must say I have not entered into many contracts with clients and I have never had any problems with any clients so far. I am happy to provide agencies with samples of my work, letters of recommendation, copies of my qualifications and so on, but if our working together is contingent upon contracts which include clauses such as those listed below, then I'm afraid I simply won't agree to it.

- "Translator represents and warrants that he/she has the requisite education and technical knowledge to translate **any and all** business documents, including but not limited to documents which may require the translation of **scientific or mechanical** terminology." [emphasis added by me] I know my limits and although I consider myself to have a high level of competence in both Dutch and French, I am not familiar with specialized terminology in a number of fields, including mechanical and scientific areas, not even in English, my native language. I will not accept work which is beyond my capabilities, I have turned it down before and will continue to do so. It is simply not worth the stress to deal with subject matters with which I am not familiar.

- "Translator warrants that he/she will not keep a copy of any documents translated for [agency]" I keep all translations I have done on file so I can refer to them as it often happens that I do translations for the same client and I like to be consistent with terminology. Not only that, but I keep them just in case a problem arises so I can refer to the translation as I delivered it, prior to any changes made by anyone at a later date. It goes without saying that I do keep all client documents confidential and if I do get rid of hard copies, they do go through the paper shredder.

- "Translator shall not directly or indirectly request, cause, solicit, induce, or otherwise attempt to divert current, **future, or potential** customers of [agency], either directly or indirectly..." [emphasis added by me] Of course, anyone may become a potential client of any agency, signing this contract would therefore effectively kill my career as a freelancer. Of course, I would readily agree not to solicit any clients I know to be current clients of an agency I work for, but I can't agree to the future or potential client part. Besides, I sincerely doubt any agency would provide me with their full client list, so I fail to see how they can enforce such a clause.

- "If either [agency] or its client does not accept a translation, Translator will not be entitled to payment for his/her services." There would have to be reasons given for such non-acceptance and if I disagreed with those reasons, it would have to be presented to an independent third party for assessment and arbitration.

- "The Interpreter/Translator's fee shall not be paid until the client pays the [agency] for the assignment. After the client has made payment, the [agency] will pay Interpreter/Translator on the next date on which the [agency] regularly pays its vendor accounts payable." My business agreement is with the agency, not with the end client. I have nothing to do with determining the terms of payment which the agency and the end client agreed upon. I refuse to agree to have payment for services rendered by me be contingent upon whether the agency's client pays them. After all, I cannot tell the mortgage company that I will pay the mortgage just as soon as agency X pays me. That's ridiculous.

- "The [agency] shall have no liability to Interpreter/Translator for any fees billed to but not received from a client." Again, a similar clause. The role of an agency is precisely to be an intermediary and that involves accepting a certain risk factor. Non-payment is one of those risks, and it should not be passed on to the translator like this.

- Translations are to be "done solely by the Translator without any assistance, whether direct or indirect, from any other person or entity, unless consented to in writing by [agency]." When I come across terms I cannot find translations for, I turn to help from colleagues on lists such as Lantra, and if there is a sentence or paragraph I don't quite grasp or I find ambiguous, I consult a colleague I trust and it seems unnecessary and time-consuming for me to have to request written permission from [agency] each time I do so.

- "Translator shall indemnify [agency] and hold it harmless against all liability or loss, and against all claims or actions based upon or arising out of damage or injury to persons or property caused by or sustained in connection with the performance of the contract or by conditions created thereby, or based upon any violation of any statute, ordinance, and the defense of any such claims or actions. Specifically, Translator shall indemnify and hold [agency] harmless in any suit initiated against [agency] as a result of an inaccurate or unacceptable translation, and shall be liable for all costs, including, reasonable attorneys fees, expended by [agency] in defense of such suit." Oh my... why should I sign away my rights and accept full liability? What exactly is the role of the agency here? Do they not have a system of quality assurance in place?

- "Translator warrants that he/she will not directly or indirectly use any computer program or other type of automatic translation device in the translation of any documents translated pursuant to this agreement." I don't happen to use any translation memory software at this time, but I would still not agree to this clause because it is up to me to decide what tools I deem necessary to do my own job and to do it well. If I feel I can achieve greater consistency and speed through computer-assisted translation tools, then that is entirely up to me.


Apr 22, 2007

English to Chinese translation sample 4--Projected Financials

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)


Cash Flow

Many of our customers use Projected Financials to model future cash flow, to evaluate prospective acquisitions, to analyze the impact of strategic decisions, to evaluate mergers and acquisitions and to justify capital expenditures. They also use it to plan for new product development or new business ventures, to keep pace with growth and raise capital.

Cash flow forecasts
The impact of business events on cash flow and profitability usually occurs at a point in time, not gradually over time. To keep your model realistic, Projected Financials creates projections based on discrete events. That gives you valuable insight that's usually invisible if you use trend-based financial planning and modeling applications. Our cash flow forecasts will accurately predict a cash shortfall in a specific month. Making changes to the timing of an event, such as hiring, equipment purchases or cash inflow from a loan or an equity injection, is as simple as changing the date.

Real-time collaboration
One of the most useful features in Projected Financials is its ability to convey and share information interactively in real time. It will help you communicate your business vision more clearly. And it enables you to collaborate with investors, bankers and associates to improve the reliability of your cash flow forecast.

Multiple industry applications
Projected Financials is used by operating companies and those that lend to them, invest in them and consult with them. From startups to billion-dollar corporations, companies of all sizes find the combination of model integrity, customizability and in-depth analysis ideally suited to Cash Flow Planning. (Show me your customer industry list)

See for yourself. Click on Cash Flow for a guest account and to view free examples of our innovative financial planning software. Or call us at 800-525-6878 or 978-745-0863. We'll take you on a guided tour to show you how you can build more effective and realistic financial models faster.



许多客户使用财务规划软件制定未来现金流量模型,评价收购预案,分析战略决策的影响,评价并购方案,判断资本支出合理性。 他们也用这个软件为新产品研发和新投资作计划,以便和业务增长保持同步并筹集资本。


商业活动对于现金流量和盈利能力的影响通常发生在某一点,而不是随时间的流逝逐渐发生。 为了让你的模型更加符合实际,财务规划软件基于分散的事件构成项目。 这会给你一些颇有价值的见解。如果你使用以趋势为基础的财务规划和模型工具,这些有价值的见解通常很难得到。 我们的现金流量预测方法可以准确地预计在某个月份的现金短缺。 调整事件数据,如雇佣、购置设备或者贷款或股权增加引起的现金流入,就如同调整日期一样简单。


财务规划软件最实用的特征之一是它能够即时传递和分享信息。 它会帮助你更清晰地表达公司未来的前景。 而且它还会帮助你与投资者、银行家和合伙人协作,提高现金流量预测的可靠性。


财务规划软件被应用于许许多多的运营公司,以及相关的债权人、投资者和向他们征询信息的单位。 从刚起步的到资产数十亿的,各种规模的企业都可以发现财务规划软件的完整性、客户专业化和深度分析特征非常适合于制定现金流量计划。 (请展示你的客户列表)

请自己查阅。 点击现金流量按钮,申请游客帐户,观看我们财务规划软件的案例。 或者拨打800-525-6878978-745-0863。我们将向您展示如何快速制定有效、真实的财务模型.

Apr 20, 2007

Getting Started with Trados FL in Two Minutes

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)

It is not a secret that many translators believe Trados is too complex and unfriendly. This popular misconception is supported by the bulkiness of Trados’s manuals: FL5.5 was supplied with five manuals totaling 936 pages, and FL6.5 has six manuals totaling 1252 pages - enough to scare off the most computer-savvy translator! However, these manuals can't be short and simple since they are comprehensive and cover all Trados functions and settings, which are almost unlimited.

Objective of the Article

My five years of experience in using Trados FL 5.5 and 6.5 demonstrates that knowledge of several basic functions of Trados FL is enough to use this software for translation of 80% of your jobs, helping you to:

- double your translation productivity;

- find and win more clients/jobs;

- make work less tiring;

- double your earnings;

- improve quality by increasing consistency and avoiding omissions and eye mistakes.

Hopefully this article will help you get rid of all prejudices against Trados and begin using basic Trados FL functions in two minutes. To do so, you only need to focus on vitally important Trados features and skip all the others.

Determining the Most Important Trados Features

Let's determine which Trados features are vitally important for the translation process and which features can be ignored at the first stage.

The analysis given below is based on nine months of my freelance work (from January 1, 2005 to September 15, 2005). During this period, I completed 220 translation jobs (some of them contained up to 200 source files, with a total word count of more than 500,000 source words) for 40 customers (translation agencies and end customers) from 14 countries. My language direction was English to Russian.

According to my records, the distribution of types of source files was as follows:

Types of files

Number of jobs


.doc -



.xls -



.pdf -



.ppt -



.rtf, .html, .xml and other files translated in Tag Editor



For several reasons, I converted all .pdf and .xls source files into .doc files and translated them in MS Word. The following chart reflects my usage of MS Word and Tag Editor:

The following table shows how often I used various Trados modules for translation (%):

Trados Workbench (TW)




TW+T-Windows for .xls, .ppt and others






The following chart shows how often I used Multiterm (project glossary):

This data shows that you only need Trados Workbench and MS Word to enjoy the benefits of Trados FL when translating 80% of your jobs. This means you don’t need to learn to use Multiterm, TagEditor and other Trados modules at the first stage.

Installation of Trados FL 6.5

1. Download Trados 6.5 Freelance from http://www.translationzone.com/download.asp (110 MB).

2. Install Trados 6.5 Freelance:

a. Double-click Setup.exe.

b. When asked, accept License Agreement.

c. When asked, do not install MS .NET Framework Package.

d. When asked, accept the End-User License Agreement.

e. When asked to select a license type, select "None of the above" (demo version).

f. When asked, add source and target languages.

Screenshot 1

g. When asked to chose setup type, select Complete.

The whole installation process will be completed within one minute.

Getting Started With Trados FL

You are now all set to translate your first source file with Trados 6.5 FL.

1. Select Start > Programs > Trados 6.5 Freelance > Translator's Workbench (TW).

2. Create a new Translation Memory file (TM):

a. From the TW menu select File > New.

Screenshot 2

b. When asked, select source and target languages.

Screenshot 3

c. Name the new TM and save it in a folder.

d. Open your source .doc file and place it below the TW window (see screenshot 4).

e. Place mouse pointer on the first sentence and press Alt+Home.

This preparation process typically takes less than one minute.

Type in your translation in the lower text box with the yellow background (see the screenshot below).

Screenshot 4

Note: if you already have a TM (e.g., received from your client), you do not need to create a new one - just open the existing TM (see screenshot 2). From the TW menu select File > New > Select a TM file > OK.

To go to the next sentence, press Alt+Numerical+ (on the right-hand side of the keyboard).

Repeat the above process until the end of the source file and press Alt+End.


You just completed translation of your first source file with Trados 6.5 FL. Save the bilingual file and close it.

To delete source text from the bilingual file (this process is referred to as the "clean-up"):

1. From the TW menu select Tools > Clean-up.

2. Add the file to be cleaned-up.

3. Click the Clean-up button. Click the Close button.

Your file now contains only your translation.

You can study other useful Trados functions (buttons) by selecting Trados from the MS Word menu bar.

From now on, you will never translate the same sentence, phrase or term more than once!


Hopefully this article will help you appreciate the obvious benefits of TM software: segmentation of source text, preservation of original formatting and re-use of your old translations. Having enjoyed these benefits, undoubtedly you will want to expand your abilities and learn the other Trados modules - first of all Multiterm and Tageditor.

My other articles on the use and benefits of Translation Memory software are available at my website - www.erussiantranslations.com.

From:Andrei Gerasimov, Ph.D., English to Russian translator

Translation services:Insider secrets for making an informed purchase

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese or Chinese to English translation services)

If your company is involved in international business, one thing is certain – sooner or later you’ll need to hire a translation services provider (TSP). Naturally, you want a high quality translation at the lowest possible cost.

High quality is essential to:

  • correctly convey your information and your message
  • demonstrate your company’s high standards to your target market
  • preserve and improve your brand image.

The quality of translation and target texts reflects your company’s QA system, and above all, the translation should also be of premium quality.

A quality translation is accurate, reads smoothly, and consistently uses correct industry-specific terminology. Furthermore, a quality translation is meaning-based, showing the translator understands not only the source words, but also knows how to convey the core message to the target audience, adapting it to fit that particular audience.

On the other hand, a poor – or even a simply “good enough” – translation can make a negative first impression on your new target audience. It could be the one thing that makes the difference between success and a flop.

There are some common challenges in choosing the right TSP. While you are clearly an expert in your area of business, it’s likely that the process, business and technology of translation is complete Greek to you. How to find a TSP that suits your particular needs and ensures the best quality/cost ratio?

This article is designed to help you:

  • make an informed choice of TSP
  • understand the basics of co-operation with a TSP
  • minimize translation costs without compromising quality.

Choosing a TSP

Your choices boil down to the following: use a translation agency or a freelancer – either of which may be located in your country or in the target language country. How to decide?

An agency is preferable when you need to translate into multiple target languages, in addition to printing the finished product to save you time. An agency will charge you 2-3 times more than a freelancer for translation per language. Obviously, agencies pay higher taxes and administrative expenses, plus furnishing plush office space and generating profit at your expense. The actual translation is completed by either freelancers or in-house translators. Some agencies have rigorous QA procedures, some not. The same applies to freelancers.

If you have a limited number of target languages, the obvious choice is to eliminate the middle men and go straight to freelancers. How do you know a good freelancer when you see one? Look for:

  • memberships in well-known translation associations such as the American Translators Association (USA), the Institute of Translation and Interpreting (UK), or similar associations in target language countries (i.e. the Union of Translators of Russia)
  • solid references (with contact details) from well-known transnational companies
  • sample translations in your area of knowledge
  • willingness to make a small test translation – not necessarily free-of-charge, since established translators rarely make free tests
  • proven specialization/experience in your area of knowledge.

While it may seem easier to contact an agency or a freelancer located in your country, in most cases this isn’t recommended. Translators living abroad have difficulty keeping up with their dynamic changing native languages, daily losing some linguistic skills. Another point – translators living in the target language country can easily contact a local specialist or terminologist. To determine precise terminology and ensure an accurate translation, reference materials cannot replace such “live” consultations. Living in a target language environment is a prerequisite for a translator when smooth style and up-to-date vocabulary are critically important – especially in the case of advertising and marketing texts.

Note that all good translators translate only into their target language. True bilinguals are very few. For example, Russian translators living in the USA lose command of their native language faster than they can improve their English. Also, costs in the target language country may be much more attractive than in your country.

Working with your TSP

Close co-operation between a client and TSP is critically important for a high quality translation. That means providing reference materials (previous translations or original documents which you have edited and/or approved), corporate/project-specific glossaries, necessary explanations of technology described in the source text, and sometimes clarifying sloppily-written parts. When you get a call for any of the above, take it as a sign that your translator cares about quality. Actually, the closer the co-operation, the better the results.

Take, for example, one classic case from my translation practice. When a Moscow-based yacht dealership asked me to translate some advertising brochures from English into Russian, I requested to meet a company expert with sound knowledge of yachting terminology. I was introduced to a marine engineer with many years of experience in operating these yachts. He gave me all the necessary terminology. Afterwards, however, the company’s marketing manager edited my translation heavily. Next, the company’s director made lots of changes to the marketing manager’s version. We discovered that three experts working in the same Russian dealership used different Russian terminology. Only after making a corporate glossary was the problem solved and my job duly appreciated by the client.

Minimizing charges

Psst! What I’m about to tell you is considered an industry secret by many translation agencies and freelancers. Source documents and series of documents (usually called translations projects) often contain repetitions – either internal (within one document) or external (within a series of source documents). Example – an automotive catalogue for 2005 may contain 75% of the sentences found in the 2004 catalogue. The same is true when you compare user manuals for various mobile phones of the same manufacturer. No secret there.

What you probably didn’t know is that professional translators use special software (called Translation Memory) enabling them to translate a repetitive sentence or phrase only one time. The software compares each subsequent sentence with the database and automatically offers a translation made previously. Sometimes this technology considerably decreases time and effort while improving the quality and consistency of translation. Note: don’t confuse TM with MT (Machine Translation) which is notorious for producing extremely poor-quality translation. Translation Memory, on the other hand, is simply an aid to improving the efficiency of human translators.

So, where is the cost-savings opportunity for you? Ask your TSP to analyze the source text (Trados or Wordfast are the most popular TM software with an analysis function) to determine the percentage of exact and fuzzy matches, then request an appropriate discount. Typical discounts are as follows: new words – 100%, 99-85% matches – 70%, 84-0% – 100%, repetitions and exact matches – 30% (these should be checked and sometimes edited in a new context). Depending on what the analysis shows, you may be able to cut your translation expenses significantly.

I’m pleased to offer the tips in this article based on my 25 years of experience in translation (as a freelancer) in the Russian market, as well as seven years in the international market. My clients include Volvo Cars, Philips, Ericsson and UNESCO, in addition to dozens of translation agencies from the USA, UK, Japan, Belgium, Sweden and France. Other articles designed to improve understanding between translation clients and translation services providers are published on my website http://www.erussiantranslations.com/.

Andrei Gerasimov, Ph.D.