Native Chinese speaker Be a translator since 1995

Master Degree (my certificates) Certified accountant

Website localization DTP (Desktop publishing)

High quality-ready to publish Try it for free!


1995~present English-Chinese translator

2010~2014 Webmaster of usatouronline.com

1995~2002 Harbin university. Engage in the fields of accountancy, economics, business administration, marketing, etc.


  • Master degree (2003), business administration, Harbin Institute of Technology (among the Top 10 universities in China ).

  • Bachelor degree (1995), accountancy, Harbin University.


  • 1000+ projects completed since 1995

  • Recent projects:
a. AirAsia (200,000+ words) http://www.airasia.com/cn/zh/

b. KLM (100,000+ words) http://www.klm.com/travel/cn_cn/index.htm

c.Symantec(5000+ words) http://www.symantec.com/zh/cn/

Click here to see more samples


Translation0.06 USD~0.08 USD per source word (English or Chinese)

Editing 0.03 USD~0.04 USD per source word (English or Chinese)

DTP 10~12 USD per A4 page


Email: translator_li@hotmail.com MSN: translator_li@hotmail.com

TOM-Skype: translatorli2008 Cell phone :0086-13674676677

HOW TO GET STARTED (click here for more details)

Jan 9, 2008

IAS 11 Construction Contracts

(Edited by freelance Chinese translator li – English to Chinese translation or Chinese to English translation services- financial translation)

IAS 11 Construction Contracts (建筑包工合同)

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment(会计处理) of revenue and costs associated with construction contracts. Because of the nature of the activity undertaken in construction contracts, the date at which the contract activity is entered into and the date when the activity is completed usually fall into different accounting periods. Therefore, the primary issue in accounting for construction contracts is the allocation of contract revenue(合同收入分配) and contract costs to the accounting periods(会计期间) in which construction work is performed.

This Standard shall be applied in accounting for construction contracts in the financial statements of contractors(承包人).

A construction contract is a contract specifically negotiated for the construction of an asset or a combination of assets that are closely interrelated or interdependent in terms of their design, technology and function or their ultimate purpose or use.

The requirements of this Standard are usually applied separately to each construction contract. However, in certain circumstances, it is necessary to apply the Standard to the separately identifiable components of a single contract or to a group of contracts together in order to reflect the substance(主要内容) of a contract or a group of contracts.

Contract revenue shall comprise:
(a) the initial amount of revenue(协议收入;协议价款) agreed in the contract; and

(b) variations in contract work, claims(权益) and incentive payments(奖金):
(i) to the extent that it is probable that they will result in revenue; and
(ii) they are capable of being reliably measured

Contract revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration(报酬) received or receivable.

Contract costs shall comprise:
(a) costs that relate directly to the specific contract;

(b) costs that are attributable to contract activity in general and can be allocated to the contract; and

(c) such other costs as are specifically chargeable to the customer under the terms of the contract.

When the outcome of a construction contract can be estimated reliably(可靠估计), contract revenue and contract costs associated with the construction contract shall be recognised as revenue and expenses respectively by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the balance sheet date.

When the outcome of a construction contract cannot be estimated reliably:
(a) revenue shall be recognised only to the extent of contract costs incurred that it is probable will be recoverable; and

(b) contract costs shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

When it is probable that total contract costs(合同总成本) will exceed total contract revenue, the expected loss shall be recognised as an expense immediately.

No comments: